a) Describe the simple message ordering in HTTP.  b) In HTTP, can the server transmit if it has not received a request message from the client?  c) Describe the three-step handshake in TCP connection openings. [53-55] d) What kind of message does the destination host send if it does not receive a segment during a TCP connection? [54-55] e) What kind of message does the destination host send if it receives a segment that has an error during a TCP connection? [54-55] f) Under what conditions will a source host TCP process retransmit a segment?  g) Describe the four-step handshake in TCP connection closes.  h) After a side initiates the close of a connection by sending a FIN segment, will it send any more segments? Explain.  i) In Figure 2-7, suppose Host A had already sent A6 before it realized that it would need to resend A5. When it then resent A5, A6 would arrive before A5. How would Host B be able to put the information in the two segments back in order? [55-56] 4. a) What are the three general parts of messages? [57-58] b) What does the data field contain?  c) What is the definition of a header?  d) Is there always a data field in a message?  e) What is the definition of a trailer?  f) Are trailers common?  g) Distinguish between headers and header fields.  h) Distinguish between octets and bytes.  5. a) How long are Ethernet MAC addresses?  b) What devices read Ethernet destination MAC addresses?  c) If the receiver detects an error on the basis of the value in the Frame Check Sequence field, what does it do?  d) Ethernet does error detection but not error correction. Is Ethernet a reliable protocol? Explain.  8. a) Why are sequence numbers good?  b) What are 1-bit fields called?  c) If someone says that a flag field is set, what does this mean?  d) If the ACK bit is set, what other field must have a value? [61, 63] e) What is the purpose of the acknowledgment number field? [61, 63] 9. a) What are the four fields in a UDP header?  b) Describe the third.  c) Describe the fourth.  d) Is UDP reliable? Explain.  11. a) What is the syntax of a socket?  b) In Figure 2-13, when the client transmits to the webserver host, what is the source port number?  c) What is the destination port number?  d) What is the source socket?  e) What is the destination socket?  f) When the SMTP server transmits to the client host, what is the source port number?  g) What is the destination port number?  h) What is the source socket?  i) What is the destination socket?  12. a) Is the application layer standard always HTTP? [65-66] b) Which layer has the most standards?  c) At which layer would you find standards for voice over IP? (The answer is not explicitly in this section.) [65-66] d) Are all application layer standards simple like HTTP?  e) In HTTP response headers, what is the syntax of most lines (which are header fields)?  f) In HTTP request and response message, how is the end of a field indicated?  g) Do HTTP request messages have headers, data fields, and trailers? h) Do HTTP response messages that deliver files have headers, data fields, and trailers?  18. a) What is encapsulation?  b) Why is encapsulation necessary for there to be communication between processes operating at the same layer but on different hosts, routers, or switches?  c) After the internet layer process in Figure 2-19 receives the TCP segment from the transport layer process, what two things does it do? [72-73] d) After the data link layer process in Figure 2-19 receives the IP packet from the internet layer process, what two things does it do? [72-73] e) After the physical layer process receives a frame from the data link layer process, what does the physical layer process do? [72-73] f) If encapsulation occurs on the source host, what analogous process do you think will occur on the destination host? (The answer is not in the text.) [72-73] 19. a) What does a network standards architecture do?  c) What are the two dominant network standards architectures?  d) What is the dominant network standards architecture in most real firms today?  e) Are the two network standards architectures competitors?  23. a) Which layers of the hybrid TCP/IP–OSI standards architecture use OSI standards?  b) Which layers use TCP/IP standards?  c) Do wireless LAN standards come from OSI or TCP/IP? Explain. (The answer is not explicitly in this section.)  d) Do switched WAN standards come from OSI or TCP/IP? Explain. (Again, the answer is not explicitly in this section.)  *24. a) At which layers do OSI standards dominate usage?  b) Name and describe the functions of OSI Layer 5.  c) Name and describe the intended use of OSI Layer 6.  d) How is the OSI presentation layer actually used?  e) Beginning with the physical layer (Layer 1), give the name and number of the OSI layers. [80-81]
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