GUIDE 6-2 Unit 2 ANCIENT GREECE – part IIClassical Art Hellenistic Art Reconstruction of Parthenon (From the German encyclopedia, 1891) “In the land of Hellas, a small city-state dedicated to Athena, goddess of wisdom, saw the birth of a new spirit – a spirit destined to quicken the human heart and mind then, now, and for ages to come. Here in Athens for a brief span of time were concentrated the creative energies of many geniuses.” – W. Fleming CLASSICAL PERIOD in the HISTORY of ANCIENT GREECE 5t – 4th centuries B.C. Classical Period is divided into three phases: Early Classical High Classical 5th century B.C. (1st half) 5th century B.C. (2nd half) Late Classical 4th century B.C. Historical Landmarks:480 B.C. Greek victory over the Persians at Salamis;Greece entered an era of prosperity and flourishing culture;Pericles rules Athens;Parthenon built EARLY CLASSICAL ART TIMELINE 5 th century B.C. 4th century B.C. Early Classical High Classical Late Classical / / / / 500 bc 450 bc 400 bc 300 bc Start reading text.The change from Archaic to Classical art was related to what historical event? – *… Golden Age of Greece – * [In what way did the victory affect life and mood of the Greeks?] *… – a new political and cultural center [city] Severe Style – * … [What does this term denote?] Sculpture Early Classical Major developments in Early Classical sculpture: *…*… Diskobolus Sculptor: * …Material: *… Note that this is not original work.Original or copy? – * /Where copy made?/Material of original was *…Size: (find info next to the picture) They say Greek Classical art is about harmony and balance. Balance between what? – * HIGH CLASSICAL ART 5thcentury B.C.(second half)Note: In your book High Classical is called simply Classical Golden Age of Greece The culture of ancient Greece reached its peak in the 5th century B.C. TIMELINE 5 th century B.C. 4th century B.C. Early Classical High Classical Late Classical / / / / 500 bc 450 bc 400 bc 300 bc * …. – outstanding Athenian statesman who was the ‘dominating force behind the great accomplishments “The Golden Age is the term used to denote the historical period in Ancient Greece lasting roughly from the end of the Persian Wars in 448 BC to either the death of Pericles 429 BC or the end of the Peloponnesian War BC. Pericles – an Athenian general, politician and orator – distinguished himself above the other shining personalities of the era, men who excelled in politics, philosophy, architecture, sculpture, history and literature. He fostered arts and literature and gave to Athens a splendor which would never return throughout its history. He executed a large number of public works projects and improved the life of the citizens. Hence, this important figure gave his name to the Athenian Golden Age.” – Wikipedia (link) Architecture High Classical period *…. – the temple that is consideredthe” most influential building in the history of architecture”Acropolis – a city on the hill (on the edge) [general term]Acropolis (of Athens) – * … [click to read more]When did the building campaign start? – *Under whose direction? – *In what city? – *Dedicated to which goddess? – *Architects: * *What architectural order was used in Parthenon construction? – *What statue was placed inside, in the cella? – * How big was it? – * Interestingly, most of the temple’slines are not strictly vertical or horizontal. A number of architectural tricks were applied in this temple to achieve the unique optical/perceptual impression of harmony and monumentality. Read about the irregularities in construction – they were clearly done by precise calculations. § Stylobate & entablature – * [in what way are they curved?]§ Columns – * [Are they vertical? How are they spaced?§ Entasis – …. [click on the term-link to read more about ‘bulging’ of column] § What were possible reasons for these variations? – * The subsequent history of the Parthenon The temple had quite an amazing historical fate. In the 6th century C.E. – *…. Later… -*…. What happened in the 17th century? – *…. Phidias Showing the Frieze of the Parthenon to his Friendsby Alma-Tadema (19th century artist).Among the spectators – Pericles (the bearded man facing Phidias) This artist belonged to the Academic movement that was dedicated to the historically true reconstruction of the subject and period. So, you can get a pretty good idea how the Romans were dressed and looked. Sculpture High Classical periodWho was commissioned to oversee the sculptural program? – … This is how a pediment might look before the blasts. Observe the right corner to notice the sculptural group “Three Goddesses” Three Goddesses Date: … Take a close look at these elegant figures made in Phidian style Phidian style characteristics:[what was typical for his artistic manner?] – The bodies are * – Their poses and gestures * – The draperies * [how they look] Special effect the thinner drapery produce: It “clings to the body as if it were*… Be an art expert When you see this type of the elegant folds,clinging to the body in a special wet like way,gently enveloping the figure…- you can always say that this sculpture was carved in the high or late classical,or in the next Hellenistic period. What happened with these Goddesses and some other sculptures from Parthenon?How did they end in the British museum in London? Lord Elgin & Elgin Marbles Who was Lord Elgin? – ….What was his role in the Partheon’s story? -….When id he take the marbles to London? – … Where the Parthenon marbles are now? – *….. About half of them were taken to Britain Doryphoros or “….. “ [English name] Sculptor:…Dates:…. Century: …. [Do not forget to put B.C.] Idealized figure – *….[What does it mean ?] Elements of Polykleitos style: Canon of proportion, example: “The entire body is equal in height *….. “ One of the rules, developed by Polykleitos tocreate the perfect representation of human body;You may want to take a ruler and double check it. *… principle – one of the most significant elements of Polykleitos style. [name and describe the pose, use words counterbalance & naturalism] I would like to remind – To make your outlines better structured delete all my directions and prompting questions. Note: ideal + perfect + idealized + balanced + harmony = key terms in Classical art vocabulary VASE PAINTING High Classical periodThis is such an enjoyable subject to study. Read this section and make a few notes. Argonaut Krater by Niobid PainterTechnique: * Remember the black-figure and red-figure techniques of the Archaic period ? Looking at this vase, tell me again which technique was the latest one to emerge? * [Easy, yet this will help you to remember…] What is new in this case compared to the vases from Archaic period? Composition – *…[useterms register and frieze; take time to go back andcompare]Three-dimensionalspaceperception – * [how achieved?]Realism (attempt) – *….. Notice that the painted decoration of the vases is the only example of Greek art of painting. * ….. painting [What was the other type of painting that did not survive?] What is our main source to learn what Greek painting might have look like? – * Roman fresco: Aldobrandini Wedding (1st century BC.) Vatican Museum LATE CLASSICAL ART *…century B.C. [Indicate century] TIMELINE 5 thcentury B.C. 4th century B.C. Early Classical High Classical Late Classical / / / / 500 bc 450 bc 400 bc 300 bc Late Classical versus High Classical art – * [What is new?] Polykleitan ideal of the male figure – *… [key features of High Classical style]Praxiteles ideal – *… [key features of Late Classical style] Title: ….Sculptor: …Date: c. … B.C /Century: … B.C. / Describe statue and sculptors’ skills in carving marble [compare to Doryphoros from the previous High Classical period]*…….*…….*……. * – messenger-god [Who is who?]* – god of wine and abundance of nature depicted as an infant Late Classical sculptors used the exaggerated double weight-shift, which resulted in a specific stance called *….. [Make sure you understand and remember the term] Be an art expert If you draw the line through Hermes body along the spine and legs you will get exactly this type of curve. If you see the statue with S-curve stance you can be certain that it was not done in the Late Classical period or later, not before. Here we have a professional art history talk. Note: this statue is considered to be the only undisputed original Greek marble sculpture from the Classical period. Title: *… …Sculptor: …Date: …. /Century: ……/ Nude mail athlete – a typical Classical subject. Original or Roman Copy? – Material of this copy: …Material of original: …. What were Lysippos’ innovations?*…….. *……. Compare to Polycleitus’ Spear Bearer. You can even measure Apoxyomenos’ proportions – the size of his head with a ruler and make sure that the head is smaller and the whole figure more slender. ‘Lysippos’ reputation was almost unsurpassed’ in the ancient world.Story about related to Alexander the Great:*Story about the Emperor Tiberius told bythe Roman historian Pliny:*…. HELLENISTIC PERIOD in History of Greece Spanned last 300 years of theB.C. era TIMELINE 5 thcentury B.C. 4th century B.C. 3rd – 1st centuries B.C. Early Classical High Classical Late Classical Hellenistic / / / / / / / 500 bc 450 bc 400 bc 300 bc 200 bc 100 bc 0 Hellenistic period started under the reign of * , who conquered Persia, Egypt, and The Near East, created the huge empire, and spread the Greek / Hellenistic culture all over it. Characteristics of Hellenistic art: *……*…… Depicts a fallen barbarian warrior who “…has lost his battle and is now about loosing his life”Title:*……Sculptor:* …Original or Roman copy? -[delete the wrong part]Material of original:….Material of copy:…. Compare it to the Fallen Warrior , from Archaic period and tell me which one depicts more realistically human appearances and emotions – * ….. Characteristics: Masterful realistic renditionPreoccupation with *…Key words to describe Hellenistic art: [scattered through the text, pick main ones] *……*……*…… Title:*… (Roman name, better known) *….. (Greek name) Melos – name of island where found 2nd century B.C. Museum: *… [where now] This statue can serve as an example of anothertrend in Hellenistic art “that reflected ……(complete phrase to describe this stylistic trend) Venus de Milo – presents a continuation of classical tradition in Hellenistic art. This work wasremoved from the latest editionof your book. Yet, it is so famous that I want you to know it. It is also a very good example ofHellenistic art. Observethe styles’ characteristics one more time:dramaand theater quality,heightened realism,excessive emotions, pathos, etc.Laocoön and his sons 1st century B.C. Marble/copy after an Hellenistic original/ Legend: Visit Wikipedia to read a story aboutthe priest who alarmed his people aboutthe deception of the Trojan horse … Put it here in a few lines (remove image) In 1506 – almost 1600 years after it had been carved – the sculptural group was unearthed in Rome It was a sensational discovery that greatly influenced the Renaissance masters – for example, Michelangelo. If you go to the art museum in Richmond (VMFA) for yourmidterm project, find this painting by French artist H. Robert. It was done in the 18th century – in the Neo-Classical period, that was characterized by a great admiration for the Greek antiquities. Chronological problem: Which sculpture – Laocoon or Venus – was made first?*……. ================================================================== * ….. B.C. – Year the Romans sacked a Greek city of Corinth, on the Peloponnesus. This date officially marked the end of the Greek power but not the end of its culture and art. They say that the conqueror was captivated by the fallen enemy. Greece was assimilated by the powerful Roman Empire and became its colony.Greek art has continued to exist and nourish the Roman and other cultures, up to the present days. I would like to ask you to go back to the first page of this Chapter – in the very first paragraph you will find this saying: “Nothing moves in the world which is not …“[Complete the quote] Now, after studying the Greek culture during almost 1000 years of its existence, read the first paragraph about enduring Greek influence on the European civilization. Remember three revivals of Greek culture during the following 3,000 years.“During the 15th century there was a revival called * “On the eve of the French Revolution of 1789 there was another one called – * Tell how Greek architectural styles were used in America. *Tomorrow, when you walk through your town, look around. You will be amazed to see that you are surrounded by the “Greek temples.” Observe the columns. Being as knowledgeable as you are now, you should be able to identify the order. It is fun and also – a pleasure and satisfaction of “knowing.”It is amazing how far-reaching has been the influence of Greek culture, isn’t it? * * *BTW, the answer to the “Laocoon versus Venus” question is: Venus was made first in the 2nd century B.C. -while Laocoon was made about 100 years later (in the 1st century B.C.). Draw a quick timeline, if you need to visualize this issue. Take Greek Quiz 4 – it covers the entire Greek section (both Greek guides) * * * GREEK TIME-LINE * Geometric * ! ! Golden Age ! ! ________________________________________________________________900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 O While reviewing the guides, it will be helpful to fill in this table. To have the guides printed would be better but you can also get back to the beginning and scroll down – to review these intense guides. Use the timelines I provided in various parts of the guides to sum up all the dates in one small table. Period in the History of Greek Art Century/Centuries Geometric Archaic Classical Early Classical 5th century (1st half)High Classical 5th century (2nd half)Late Classical Hellenistic Place the periods on the Timeline – type in the names of the periods above the colored areas.
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